Takwa; faced with the incommunicable mystery, the Qur'an demands of the believer, in respect of God, reverent fear and, at the same time, piety, the act of which is the same as the act of reverent fear. Takwa means resigning to the Creator, having devoted himself to Him in every respect. To endear oneself to God one should do one's best to do whatever He commands and to emulate Muhammad in prayer and behavior are the main expectations. Individuals who act so purify themselves from sins that they may have committed and having put on he ends up by attaining perfection: O ye Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you. But the raiment of righteousness,- that is the best.(7/26) Those clad in the raiment of righteousness are the favorites of God who will place them in paradise…. Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you…. (49/3) and Those who believe and (constantly) guard against evil;- (10/63). The path that leads to God consists then of a) Belief in God and b) Takwa.


… But Allah has endeared the Faith to you, and has made it beautiful in your hearts, and He has made hateful to you Unbelief, wickedness … (49/7)

Feeling of love based on faith, intuition and perception is a sentiment that has no parallel. The secret of belief in God innate in man connotes loving the Almighty Creator with thankfulness and gratitude. It is made manifest by the kindling in one's heart of that fire within one's heart and made whole by a reciprocal action inspired by God. No soul can believe, except by the will of Allah,…(10/100) The faith in a man is first kindled therefore in his heart innate in him which enables him to know His Lord. Once the faith ,is made firm, the process of salvation begins. For, Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, and when they hear His signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, and put (all) their trust in their Lord; (8/2) The faith one has been blessed with should express it verbally: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces Towards east or West; but it is righteousness- to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the Allah.fearing. (2/177)


… But the raiment of righteousness,- that is the best… (7/26)

What are the prerequisites of righteousness? Purification of one's soul through laudable acts and deeds is by performance of regular prayers, keeping fast, giving alms, and sharing one's surplus of assets with others, forgiveness of others' shortcomings, resignedness, benevolence, justice, fulfillment of promises and covenants area man's assets as enumerated in the Qur'an.

Believers must know at all cost the above requirement and duly perform them. So fear Allah as much as ye can; listen and obey and spend in charity for the benefit of your own soul and those saved from the covetousness of their own souls,- they are the ones that achieve prosperity. (64/16) This is the path of purification, striping one's Self of evil tendencies which are attributing partners to God, wrongdoing, covering up truth, lust, idolize one's desires, mockery, gossiping, skepticism, arrogance, profligacy, jealousy, treachery, wrath, hatred, etc. Two conflicting forces are innate in man: namely, positive forces whose origin is the soul and the angels and negative forces whose origin lies in the self and Satan. … men's souls are swayed by greed… It is evident that the positive forces, in other words the divine attributes and the evil representing the negative forces cannot coexist. An individual gets rid of his evil tendencies as he progresses in the path of takwa. The evil tendencies will remain with man unless he progresses in the path drawn by God, to achieve eventually perfection. (To the righteous soul will be said:) "O (thou) soul, in (complete) rest and satisfaction. "Come back thou to thy Lord, well pleased (thyself) and well-pleasing unto Him! "Enter thou, then, among my Devotees! Yea, enter thou My Heaven!" (89/27-30) The garb of righteousness consists of about 10 divine attributes


Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; … (3/134)

As to the Righteous, they will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs, And in their wealth and possessions (was remembered) the right of the (needy,) him who asked, and him who (for some reason) was prevented (from asking). (51/15-19)

Infak, sharing one's assets to maintain other people: this aims at the welfare of humanity. It is incumbent upon everyone without any discrimination between the poor and the rich. It is the expression of the individual's love for God, of his reliance on and resignation to Him. Saying of beautiful words is also considered as a gesture of generosity. To display a smiling countenance, to console a person grieved, to make a visit to the sick are also acts of benevolence. Alms, tithes and such other aids are among the charitable deeds whose quantities are preset, while infak has no limits. By no means shall ye attain righteousness unless ye give (freely) of that which ye love; and whatever ye give, of a truth Allah knoweth it well. (3/92) God stresses that giving would not decrease but increase one's assets. Say: "Verily my Lord enlarges and restricts the Sustenance to such of his servants as He pleases: and nothing do ye spend in the least (in His cause) but He replaces it: for He is the Best of those who grant Sustenance. (34/39) Who should be the receiver of the charity? They ask thee what they should spend (In charity). Say: Whatever ye spend that is good, is for parents and kindred and orphans and those in want and for wayfarers. And whatever ye do that is good, -(Allah) knoweth it well. (2/215)

Benevolence. This is kindly disposition to do good and promote the welfare of others. Benevolence also is a kind of infak. They believe in Allah and the Last Day; they enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong; and they hasten (in emulation) in (all) good works: They are in the ranks of the righteous. Of the good that they do, nothing will be rejected of them; for Allah knoweth well those that do right. (3/114-115) Helping one's own fellow beings is a service rendered to God. Philanthropy, charitable deeds, to feed the hungry, to marry off people, to extend capitals, to work for the Red Crescent or the Red Cross, to write edifying books and to make scientific researches must be considered humanitarian acts.

Eleemosynary: to be given to eleemosynary activities is highly laudable in the sight of God. For instance, a medical doctor who practices his profession not for money but for the mere sake of humanity, a teacher who educates his students without waiting for any material reward in return, a president, an MP or mayor whose main ideal is to serve the welfare of his people are among the philanthropists. . Those who have faith and do righteous deeds,- they are the best of creatures. Their reward is with Allah. Gardens of Eternity, beneath which rivers flow; they will dwell therein for ever; Allah well pleased with them, and they with Him: all this for such as fear their Lord and Cherisher.

Industry: The above acts require systematic labor especially for the creation of value. Therefore, when thou art free (from thine immediate task), still labor hard; And to thy Lord turn (all) thy attention. (94/7-8) That man can have nothing but what he strives for; That (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight: Then will he be rewarded with a reward complete; (53/39-41) Sloth is banned in Islam…."Work (righteousness): Soon will Allah observe your work,… (9/105)

Love for the created: . Ah! ye are those who love them, but they love you not,- (3/119) Human beings and the creatures are the result of the blending of God's attributes. Whatever is created has a raison d'être. Affection and sympathy must be shown to all living beings as well as to plants and animals and to whatever created that come within our ken or not. Yunus Emre, our mystic poet said: "I love the created because I love the Creator."


… to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity … (2/177)

… For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times… (4/103)

Salat, the ritual prayer is the fundamental adoration act. It is the commandment of God. Every Muslim praises while praying his Creator who has granted him infinite number of gifts. Ritual prayer keeps one fit, as it is performed by bodily movements. It makes one psychologically sound and keeps him away from all ills and satanic tendencies. The salat calls for absolute devotional behavior. Once this duty has been performed, the man feels refreshened and his evil inclinations are transformed into their contraries. Pride, the greatest sin of man disappears while prostrating during the prayer. Salat is the miraj (ascension to heaven) of the believer, says one of the traditions of the Prophet. The aim of salat is communication with the Almighty. Verily, I am Allah. There is no god but I: So serve thou Me (only), and establish regular prayer for celebrating My praise. (20/14)

Remembering God. As salat is performed at the appointed hours of the day, God is remembered throughout the day. Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. Another way to remember god is recitation of the Qur'an. To read the Qur'an in its translation is preferable since one will understand it better than in its original Arabic tongue. And do thou (O reader!) Bring thy Lord to remembrance in thy (very) soul, with humility and in reverence, without loudness in words, in the mornings and evenings; and be not thou of those who are unheedful (7/205) The more one remembers Him the more he manifests his adoration for Him. By men whom neither traffic nor merchandise can divert from the Remembrance of Allah, nor from regular Prayer, nor from the practice of regular Charity: Their (only) fear is for the Day when hearts and eyes will be transformed (in a world wholly new),- (24/37) This is experiencing God at every moment of one's life. Then do ye remember Me; I will remember you…. (2/152) If a man in all sincerity addresses God, He will answer to his Call. Remembering God is through reciting one or more of his names and attributes. This remembering may also be tacitly performed: … Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides,…(3/191) This act of an individual does not prevent him from carrying out hiss job. . "Those who believe, and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah. for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction. (13/28) God is nearer to us than our jugular vein.


to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; (2/177)

Of their goods, take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; (9/103)

Zakat is an obligatory tax required of Muslims, one of the five Pillars of Islam. The zakat is levied on five categories of property-food grains; fruit; camels, cattle, sheep, and goats; gold and silver; and movable goods-and is payable each year after one year's possession. The tax levy required by religious law varies with the category. Recipients of the zakat include the poor and needy, the collectors themselves, and "those whose hearts it is necessary to conciliate"-e.g., discordant tribesmen, debtors, volunteers in jihad (holy war), and pilgrims. . And in their wealth and possessions (was remembered) the right of the (needy,) him who asked, and him who (for some reason) was prevented (from asking). (51/19) This act of philanthropy is also a sort of purification. The barrier between the wealthy and the poor will thus be obliterated and a mutual affection will dawn. Zakat is one fortieth of the savings after tax. Zakat and infak differ in that the former is obligatory, a kind of revenue tax, while the latter is freely given both by the wealthy and the poor according to their means the amount of which not being prescribed.

Giving of Zakat does not cause a decrease in one's assets; quite the reverse, it increases one's income. That which ye lay out for increase through the property of (other) people, will have no increase with Allah. but that which ye lay out for charity, seeking the Countenance of Allah, (will increase): it is these who will get a recompense multiplied. (30/39) Islam is not against wealth as such made by one's labor. However, a person of means must share a portion of his revenue so that he may lawfully enjoy the rest. To incite people to work God has endowed man with the will to work for material gain. Fair in the eyes of men is the love of things they covet: Women and sons; Heaped-up hoards of gold and silver; horses branded (for blood and excellence); and (wealth of) cattle and well-tilled land. Such are the possessions of this world's life; but in nearness to Allah is the best of the goals (To return to). (3/14) If love for money is not bridled it will invade the entire man and smother him in the end. O ye who believe! there are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah. announce unto them a most grievous penalty- (9/34)

Who are the recipients of zakat? Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah. and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. (9/60) Parents, spouses and children are not supposed to be recipients of zakat.


Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,-Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men;- for Allah loves those who do good;- (3/134-135)

Asking forgiveness is supplication to God. The Qur'an warns that an individual who has sinned should immediately ask fort pardon lest it becomes a habit with him. When those come to thee who believe in Our signs, Say: "Peace be on you: Your Lord hath inscribed for Himself (the rule of) mercy: verily, if any of you did evil in ignorance, and thereafter repented, and amend (his conduct), lo! He is Oft- forgiving, Most Merciful. (6/54) A man must be conscious of the fact that his act is sinful; as soon as he feels that he should be penitent and ask God to pardon his sin in all humility. … And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong…(49/11) Not only the willful sinners but those who my have committed sins unknowingly should also ask for God's pardon. ... And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss… (24/31) For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean. (2/222) Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men;- for Allah loves those who do good;- (3/134)

A man of magnanimous heart forgives the offenses committed against him just like God who is Merciful and All Forgiving. Hold to forgiveness; command what is right;..(7/199) One should refrain from finding fault with others. The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah. for ((Allah)) loveth not those who do wrong. (42/40)

An extraordinary example of forgiveness was shown by the Prophet when he conquered the city of Mecca. He had forgiven all the prisoners he had taken and pardoned Abu Sufyan leader of the Meccans and his spouse Hint who had murdered the Prophet's uncle Hamza as well as Vahþi, Hint's triggerman. It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (Their faults), and ask for ((Allah)'s) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). (3/159)

5) Patience

… and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity… (2/177)

… So persevere patiently: for the End is for those who are righteous… (11/49)

Patience is the capacity or habit of enduring evil, adversity, or pain with fortitude. A person afflicted with suffering should endure it believing that it is God's work. One of the beautiful names of God is The Patient.And Allah Loves those who are firm and steadfast…(3/146) … for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. (2/153) The believer is he who knows beforehand God will interfere in the end. . Follow thou the inspiration sent unto thee, and be patient and constant, till Allah do decide: for He is the best to decide. (10/109) Man is pre-destined to go through afflictions, if he endures them in resignation he will have gained God's favor. Ye shall certainly be tried and tested in your possessions and in your personal selves; and ye shall certainly Hear much that will grieve you, from those who received the Book before you and from those who worship many gods. But if ye persevere patiently, and guard against evil,-then that will be a determining factor in all affairs. (3/186) The individual resigned to God enjoys both bliss and affliction in the same vein, as he knows that they originate from God. Who say, when afflicted with calamity: "To Allah We belong, and to Him is our return":- (2/156) and O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. (2/153)

Patience implies also the quality or state of being resigned, submission and acquiescence. The believers must formulate their decisions according to the basic principles of the Qur'an; the outcome of their attempts will be decided by God. But follow that which comes to thee by inspiration from thy Lord: for Allah is well acquainted with (all) that ye do. And put thy trust in Allah, and enough is Allah as a disposer of affairs. (33/2-3) … Then, when thou hast Taken a decision put thy trust in Allah For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). … (3/159)


O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint,- (2/183)

Fasting is a kind of prayer that involves eating and drinking nothing from early dawn till sunset, nor can one engage in sexual relations during this space of time. This makes a man master of oneself and strengthens his will. It lasts for the whole month of Ramadan. It is one of the five main tenets of Islam. Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful. (2/185) The first verses of the Qur'an had been revealed in the course of this month, quite probably on one of days of the last week. Ramadan is the month during which Muslims pray. Recite the Qur'an pays alms etc. . (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew. (2/184)

This should not be conceived as a mortification of an ascetic. It is a self-discipline. Patience is built up by this exercise and the will become indomitable. No need to say this should not be an occasion of ostentation and exhibitionism. The poor will benefit of the generosity of the wealthier. It is the time when human relations become firmer. Not to mention the good that this will do to one's health, namely to the digestive system.


As to the Righteous, they will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs, Taking joy in the things which their Lord gives them, because, before then, they lived a good life. (51/15-16)

Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous,- (3/133-134)

The beneficent is he who does good to others without waiting anything in return. . And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good. (2/195) The beneficent reflects divine attributes. The beneficent is the blissful servant that has been favored by God. But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief." (28/77) While conversing individuals are recommended to use beautiful words. Allah loveth not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice hath been done; for Allah is He who heareth and knoweth all things. (4/148)

The Qur'an explicitly decrees that individuals should act affectionately towards their fellow beings and refrain from behaving badly toward them. . Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to attain felicity. (3/104) Admonitions must also be carried out gently. Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! (41/34) One can observe that God's retaliation of a bad action is not always through wrath but leniency. He that doeth good shall have ten times as much to his credit: He that doeth evil shall only be recompensed according to his evil: no wrong shall be done unto (any of) them. (6/160)

b) Agreements must be kept

to fulfill the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient,.. (2/177)

O ye who believe! fulfill (all) obligations (5/1)

Words given, contracts, agreements and treaties must be kept. This is the only way to keep peace. One's going back on his word creates strife. … "But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers."…(2/124) O ye who believe! Why say ye that which ye do not? Grievously odious is it in the sight of Allah that ye say that which ye do not. (61/2-3)

9) Honesty and Justice

O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (5/8)

Justice is the maintenance or administration of what is just: impartial adjustment of conflicting claims; the assignment of merited rewards or punishments; just treatment; behave in line with God's commandments. To get mad at somebody or to feel dislike toward him must not deter him from being just. Nations' perpetuity rests on justice and honesty.

No matter who the parties are no discrimination must be made between them. God is nearer to both parties than us. The parties' wealth, social position, mercy and threatening behavior must not affect the judgment of the decision maker. O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well- acquainted with all that ye do. (4/135). Man is a greedy creature. He is inclined to bribe people to get something that is not supposed to be his lot. Bribing judges is the worst kind of sins. And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property. (2/188)

10) Knowledge

And so amongst men and crawling creatures and cattle, are they of various colors. Those truly fear Allah, among His Servants, who have knowledge: for Allah is Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving. (35/28)

The word takwa also implies fear and dread of God. Both fear and love are nestled in the believer's heart. According to the Qur'an the individuals who fear God most are the Prophets and men of learning. As for those who fear their Lord unseen, for them is Forgiveness and a great Reward.(67/12)

An act performed out of love and affection is certainly better than an act carried out in fear. The person who is well-disposed toward someone naturally does what that someone likes much better than otherwise. Scholars have likened the ambivalent mixed feeling of fear and love that the believer entertains for God as the feeling of a child for his parents. … after the knowledge which hath reached thee … (13/37)

The knowledge mentioned in the verse reaches men when communicated by Prophets to whom the revelation comes. Sources of knowledge are the books revealed, and in Islam the contents of the Qur'an. There are two sorts of knowledge; namely, the theological knowledge and the Practical knowledge. The theological knowledge is that knowledge concealed in the words of God. The laws that govern the worlds and the human beings, and the answers to such question as where have we come from and whither are we heading for belong to this category. We are to be resurrected on the Judgment Day and see truth; however, before we are resurrected our duty is to follow in the path drawn by God so that we may reach perfection and come to know God. O ye who believe! When ye are told to make room in the assemblies, (spread out and) make room: (ample) room will Allah provide for you. And when ye are told to rise up, rise up Allah will rise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted (mystic) Knowledge. And Allah is well- acquainted with all ye do. (58/11) Both men and the universe form a whole of illustration of verses which we are supposed to delve into and learn the secret hidden in them. The Qur'an has laid down the divine laws but left to men to find out the laws of His creation. "But he did lead astray a great multitude of you. Did ye not, then, understand? (36/62) The very first verse was revealed by the commandment 'Read!" Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created- Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not. (96/1-5) 'The Book' is one of the names of the Qur'an. Both man and the universe are Books to be read. Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire. (3/191) It is knowledge that enables man to attain the heights of civilization. High above all is Allah, the King, the Truth! Be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation to thee is completed, but say, "O my Lord! advance me in knowledge. (20/114)

Thus doth Allah make clear to you (His) Signs; that ye may consider. (2/266) Mere reading of a text is not enough to edify oneself. One has to meditate and ponder on it. The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of Allah. and Allah guides not people who do wrong. (62/5)

To love the Almighty requires that we love our fellow beings since they are created by Him. To love one's fellow being means to serve him, i.e. through knowledge acquired…. Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? (39/9) Knowledge must be acquired in the line of medicine, engineering, physics, mathematics, law, ecology, astronomy, etc. and the recipients of these disciplines must be revered and boosted up. The Prophet said: "Go to China, if you must, if you know that the knowledge you are looking for is available there!"

(See Mesut Kaynak Love and the Quran)


Gardens of perpetual bliss: they shall enter there, as well as the righteous among their fathers, their spouses, and their offspring: and angels shall enter unto them from every gate (with the salutation): "Peace unto you for that ye persevered in patience! Now how excellent is the final home!" (13/23-24)

So fear Allah as much as ye can; listen and obey and spend in charity for the benefit of your own soul and those saved from the covetousness of their own souls,- they are the ones that achieve prosperity. (64/16)

Gardens of Eternity, those which ((Allah)) Most Gracious has promised to His servants in the Unseen: for His promise must (necessarily) come to pass. (19/61)